Welcome to the Spring column and the latest round-up of news and views on the unexplained, conspiracy theories, the weird and the wonderful.
The Cosford Incident - 20th Anniversary
This Spring sees the 20th anniversary of one of the best-known and most compelling UFO incidents in the world. Collectively known as the Cosford Incident, these were a series of several dozen sightings that took place over a period of about 6 hours on 30/31 March 1993. Many of the several dozen witnesses were police officers and military personnel. Sightings came in from many different parts of the UK and I led the official Ministry of Defence investigation into the incident, which took place midway through my three year posting to MoD's UFO project. We quickly ascertained that the re-entry of a Russian rocket probably explained a cluster of sightings at around 1.10am, but the more spectacular, lower altitude sightings remained unexplained. These included a scoutmaster and his scouts out hiking in the Quantock Hills, who saw a UFO "like two Concordes flying side by side and joined together", at around 8.30pm. The Meteorological Officer at RAF Shawbury who witnessed a vast, triangular-shaped craft flying over the base at a height of around 200 feet, firing a narrow beam of light at the ground and emitting a low-frequency humming sound. The craft moved very slowly, before accelerating away to the horizon many times faster than a military jet (the witness had been in the RAF for eight years). Air Cadet Darren Perks, who went on to join the military, saw the UFO and said that it had been so big, the stars blacked out one by one as the UFO passed over his head. Click on planetxlive.co.uk to read an article on the case by Darren Perks and click YouTube to access the first part of a Channel 5 documentary that I presented on the case, which is one of numerous news bulletins, chat shows and documentaries on which I have discussed this case, which is probably the UK's best-known UFO sighting aside from the Rendlesham Forest incident. By a bizarre coincidence, the Cosford incident took place three years to the very day after a spectacular wave of UFO sightings in Belgium, where two F-16 fighters were scrambled to try to intercept a huge, triangular-shaped UFO that was seen by numerous witnesses and tracked on radar.
A still photo from a Channel 5 documentary that Nick Pope presented on the Cosford incident
One of the many foreign language versions of the TV documentary that Nick Pope presented on the Cosford incident
Citizen Hearing on Disclosure
From 29th April to May 3rd, the National Press Club in Washington DC will host an event in which 40 witnesses will discuss the UFO phenomenon in hearings in front of former members of Congress. The process will mirror, as far as is possible, actual Congressional hearings. These 'Citizens' Hearings' are the brainchild of the Paradigm Research Group and its Executive Director Stephen Bassett. The witnesses will be ex-government or ex-military personnel who have had some verifiable involvement with the UFO phenomenon, either as witnesses, or as people who have undertaken official investigations of UFO sightings. I'm one of the participants, in view of my official research and investigation with the British Government on this subject. Click on citizenhearing.org for more details of this important event, which will doubtless generate significant mainstream media coverage in the US, the UK and elsewhere.
National Archives UFO Files
The five year program to declassify and release the entire archive of Ministry of Defence UFO files is reaching its climax. With the release of the tenth and final batch we come to the end of a story that has enthralled the public and led to a record amount of mainstream media coverage of the UFO phenomenon.
First of all, some background and statistics: MoD's UFO project ran from 1953 until 2009, when it was axed, as part of wider defence cuts. In that time, over 12,000 sightings were investigated. Some files from the early years had been destroyed many years ago and a number of others had already been released under the so-called 30 Year Rule - part of the old Public Records Act. The policy decision to release the remainder of the files was made in 2007 and the primary reason was that the MoD was receiving more Freedom of Information Act requests about UFOs than on any other subject. The French government had also released their UFO files, setting a precedent that MoD found difficult to ignore. The first batch of MoD UFO files was released in May 2008. Other batches followed every six months or so. In all, there were around 200 files and over 50,000 pages of documentation.
I've been heavily involved in the file release program at every step of the process. I broke the story in the media at the end of 2007 and was then invited by staff at the National Archives to help with the release itself. This involved recording an interview announcing the release, which was syndicated to the world's media, and then picking out specific cases that might be of particular media and/or public interest. Mostly, however, it involved my becoming the public face of this story, either through writing features for national newspapers, or by giving TV/radio interviews. I was already the media's 'go-to guy' for UFO stories, but having worked on these files while running MoD's UFO project, I was inevitably the person to whom the media turned for a comment on the story. In total, I've probably given several hundred TV, radio and newspaper interviews on the release of these real-life X-Files, with credits including Newsnight, Radio 4's Today Programme, the main BBC and ITV news bulletins, Good Morning America, Larry King Live and CNN News.
The public reaction has been phenomenal, but the reaction from the UFO community has been surprisingly disappointing. Some ufologists dishonestly or mistakenly claimed that their making FOI requests to the MoD led to the release of the UFO files - perhaps unaware that hundreds of their fellow ufologists were simultaneously doing the same thing! Others complained that exemptions to the Freedom of Information Act covering areas such as defence and national security meant that the most interesting documents had not been released. My involvement in the release of these files fuelled conspiracy theories that the whole process was either disinformation or a prelude to 'Disclosure', given that a sizable number of people believe that I'm still secretly working for the MoD!
Whatever ufologists (be they skeptics or believers) think of the release of MoD's UFO files, this has been the biggest and most significant UFO story for many years. It's moved the subject to a much more mainstream position with the media and I'm proud to have had the opportunity to play a part in this.
Here's my overall assessment of this material:
"These are the real-life X-Files. Most UFO sightings had conventional explanations, but a small percentage remained unexplained. These included cases where UFOs were seen by police officers, chased by pilots and tracked on radar. Whatever you think about UFOs, the release of these files shines a light on one of the most intriguing subjects ever studied by the British government".
Click on nickpope.net for further details of the release of MoD's UFO files.
Nick Pope discusses the release of MoD's UFO files in a live CNN news report
Nick Pope at the National Archives, opening the real-life X-Files
FBI Alien Memo is Most Popular Document
A couple of years ago the FBI gathered together all the declassified documents that came up most frequently in Freedom of Information Act requests and placed them in a special part of their website, known as The Vault. Newly released statistics show that the most popular document of all is a memo by FBI agent Guy Hottel, dated 1950, and supposedly referring to the crash of an alien spacecraft at Roswell. The memo states "An investigator for the Air Forces stated that three so-called flying saucers had been recovered in New Mexico" before going on to say that each craft contained "three bodies of human shape, but only 3 feet tall, dressed in metallic cloth of a very fine texture". The FBI has pointed out that the report is simply a record of a tip-off that they received and should not be seen as proof that the US Government is aware that UFOs are extraterrestrial. Needless to say, this has not stopped various conspiracy theories springing up about the document. The story about the memo's popularity has generated extensive mainstream media coverage, proving once again the long-standing appeal of the UFO mystery. Click on vault.fbi.gov to access The Vault.
Guy Hottel's 1950 memo to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover about recovered alien spacecraft.
JFK Assassination - 50th Anniversary
As a broadcaster and writer well-known for my media interviews and articles on conspiracy theories, I'm often asked about the assassination of JFK. In the run-up to the 50th anniversary of JFK's death, there's going to be increased interest in this topic.
The assassination of JFK was a defining moment in American history and marked the birth of the modern conspiracy theory era. The Warren Commission, set up to investigate the killing, concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald killed the President and that he acted alone. The evidence was overwhelming, in particular, the so-called "backyard photos", which showed Oswald posing with the murder weapon. Even the House Select Committee on Assassinations (which did later support the idea of a conspiracy - albeit on dubious evidence) concluded that the photos were genuine, as did Oswald's wife, who took them. However, almost immediately, some people began to question the official version of events.
The Warren Commission was not without its flaws (exactly the same can be said of the 9/11 Commission), but this does not render their fundamental findings unsound. Despite a multitude of claims and theories, no compelling evidence has been brought forward to call into question the conclusion that Lee Harvey Oswald fired the fatal shots and that he acted alone. More to the point, no competing theory is supported by nearly as much evidence as the official conclusion.
Most of the conspiracy theories concerning JFK's death can be eliminated by the simple application of the 'means, motive and opportunity' test. These conspiracy theories range from being merely self-contradictory and illogical, to being demonstrably false and patently absurd. That's not to say that people who believe in conspiracy theories are crazy. To this day, vast numbers of ordinary people believe in JFK conspiracy theories, alongside ones relating to the moon landings or to 9/11. Distrust of government is a big factor in all of this.
Often, with the untimely death of a famous person, people look for some sort of deeper meaning. The death of Diana, Princess of Wales, is a good example. It's as if people are unable to accept the fact that one of the most famous and beautiful women in the world died in so mundane and pointless a way: a car being driven at high speed; a driver who had been drinking; a passenger who was wearing no seatbelt. So it is with JFK. People look for a more complex story, even though modern history, sadly, is full of instances where a single, deranged individual shoots a famous person (e.g. John Lennon) or large numbers of people (e.g. the Sandy Hook school massacre), for reasons that may never be fully known. The motivations for such acts are the subject of much debate and controversy. There is unlikely to be a single, neat answer, but the root cause usually involves a combination of mental illness, a perceived grievance and a desire to do something that will make the world pay attention to an individual who was previously ignored or disliked.
The assassination of JFK is an excellent example of a principle known as "Occam's Razor": when examining competing theories, the one that makes the fewest assumptions is most likely to be the correct one. The simplest explanation that fits the facts in relation to the assassination of JFK is that Lee Harvey Oswald really was the lone gunman. It may not be as interesting as the various conspiracy theories, but it's almost certainly the definitive explanation.
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Author, journalist and TV personality Nick Pope used to investigate UFOs for the British Government and is now recognised as a leading authority on UFOs, the unexplained and conspiracy theories.